Pendant: miniature ballcourt
- 100-800 CE
Small carvings of human figures are a common sculptural theme among the various cultural groups of both Central and West Mexico. Lapidary artists favored a variety of precious materials for their small-scale sculptures, including alabaster, obsidian, jade, serpentine, and other varieties of greenstone. This is a fine example of stone carving from Late Formative (Late Preclassic) Guerrero. This region is known for a wide variety of sculptural styles from multiple cultural groups that inhabited this area of southwest Mexico. The most well-known Guerrero style is called Mezcala, primarily small-scale abstract stone sculptures depicting human figures, masks, and temple-like buildings. This example depicts a multi-leveled ballcourt, and the two holes drilled on each side of the carving suggest it was originally worn as a pendant. The ball game was centrally important in Mesoamerican ideology, and this pendant illustrates its significance as early as the Formative (Preclassic) period. During the Classic period (150/300-650/900 CE), city centers created ball courts where they played ritual ballgames with their sacrificial victims, highborn lords who were taken in battle. Typical of the Mezcala style, the carving appears simple and elementary in form, while also very modern in its abstraction and expression.
Mexican artist Miguel Covarrubias identified the Mezcala lithic, or stone, art style in the 1940s. While the characteristic geometric forms of the figures and temples make them easy to recognize, placing them in time has been challenging, for none had been found in an archaeological context in Guerrero. In 1989, seven objects in the Mezcala style were found beneath the floors of residential complexes at Ahuinahuac, and associated materials have been securely dated to the Late Formative (Late Preclassic) period, between c. 500 and 200 BCE. Other objects in the style have since been found in context, at least one associated with material from the Late Classic period (c. 700–900 CE). Additional contextual information is needed to determine whether the presence of Mezcala-style objects in late contexts represents heirloom status, as it did in the Mezcala style objects found at the Templo Mayor at the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán, or a living sculptural tradition that persisted through centuries. The emphasis on stone sculpture in the Guerrero region also suggests an interaction with the Olmec peoples of the Gulf Coast, and many Olmec style objects have been found near this area.
Carol Robbins, Label text [1968.4; 1967.11; 1971.62; 1972.40; 1971.61], A. H. Meadows Galleries.
Carol Robbins, Label text [1968.20], A. H. Meadows Galleries, 2010.
Carol Robbins, Label text [1973.35], A. H. Meadows Galleries, 2010.
Gallery text [Veracruz], A. H. Meadows Galleries.
Gallery text [West Mexico], A. H. Meadows Galleries.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
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