Times & Places
Intermediate Central America
Lower Central America (eastern Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama) together with Colombia and Ecuador are often classified roughly together as the “intermediate area” between the larger culture areas of Mesoamerica and the Andes. Although the cultures that developed in this area were interrelated and experienced influences from both north and south, this occurred most significantly during the Inca Empire, or Late Horizon (1400-1532 CE).
Ken Kelsey, Gail Davitt, Mary Ann Allday, Barbara Barrett, and Dana DeLoach, DMA Teaching Packet, 1995.
Michael Coe, Dean Snow, and Elizabeth Benson, Atlas of Ancient America (New York and Oxford: Facts on File Publications, 1986): 157.